Madhubani Art is mainly found in the Mithila region of India and Nepal. It is normally done with fingers, twigs, brushes, pen-nibs, and matchsticks. In short, the painting is done with pointed things. The colors used in Madhubani art are natural dyes and pigment.
The art consists of different eye-catching patterns. Madhubani art is made for special occasions like birth, marriage, and festivals like Holi, Kali Puja, Upanayana, Durga Puja. Madhubani art got its recognition in 1969 when Sita Devi received the State award by the Government of Bihar.
Origin of Madhubani Art
Madhubani Painting which is also known as Mithila Painting is originated from the Madhubani District of Mithila region of Bihar. This art is mainly practiced by women of different communities in Mithila region of India and Nepal.
Earlier this painting was only used as a form of wall art but in the recent development of this painting on paper and canvas by the villagers and that is why it got the name of Madhubani art.
The painting is mainly done on the plastered mud walls and floors of the huts but after the recent development, it is also done on the cloths, paper, and canvas. Artist uses a paste of powdered rice to paint the patterns. The content and style of this art have largely remained the same as the skills are passed on through centuries.
Madhubani paintings are the two-dimensional images and the colors used in the painting are vibrant and catchy. The colors which are used in Madhubani art are extracted from plants. The painting mainly consists of different occasions like marriage, festivals, nature, the deity from ancient epics. There is no space left empty. The empty gaps are filled with flowers, animals, different patterns etc.
It is still practiced in the different part of the Mithila region to keep it alive and present the good work in front of the world. The skills of this art are passed from generation to generation mainly by women. There are different institutions in India which are still practicing Madhubani art like Kalakriti in Darbhanga, Vaidehi in Madhubani, Benipatti in Madhubani district and Gram Vikas Parishad in Ranti.
Styles of Madhubani Art
There are five different styles of Madhubani art mainly known as Bharni, Katchni, Godna and Kohbar. Katchni, Bharni, and Tantrik were mainly practiced by the Brahman and Kayashth women also known as the upper caste as these styles consist of religious themes which show Gods and Goddesses, animals and plants.
The Godna and Kohbar styles were practiced by the lower castes of the region. They usually painted their daily life and symbols, the story of Raja Shailesh (guard of the village) etc. But after the 1960s the development of the art, it got globalized therefore there are no constraints in the work of the artist on the basis of caste and religion.